Essential Portuguese Grammar – Singular and Plural Forms

A Portuguese noun has both gender and number. As in English, its number varies, being either singular or plural.

Pluralization Rule

The plural form of a Portuguese noun is generally created by adding the suffix –s.

Singular Plural
boné (cap) bonés (caps)
carro (car) carros (cars)
mesa (table) mesas (tables)
lei (law) leis (laws)

In some cases, however, the plural form will demand a special modification, according to the word’s ending in its singular form.

Singular Plural
-ão  à -ões coração (heart) corações (hearts)
-al à -ais animal (animal) animais (animals)
-el à -eis papel (paper) papéis (papers)
-il à -is barril (barrel) barris (barrels)
-ol à -ois sol (sun) sóis (suns)
-ul à -uis azul (blue) azuis (blue)
-r à + -es professor (teacher) professores (teachers)
-z à + -es luz (liht) luzes (lights)
-s à + -es país (country) países (countries)
-ês à + -es freguês (customer) fregueses (customers)
-m à -ns homem (man) homens (men)

*There are some exceptions for these rules, but you will learn them as you get immersed into the language.

Noun Agreement

While articles and adjectives have no plural in English, in Portuguese they do. As a result, articles and adjectives must agree in number with the noun they are connected to.

Singular Plural
A menina bonita (The beautiful girl) As meninas bonitas(The beautiful girls)
O carro vermelho (The red car) Os carros vermelhos(The red cars)

Please Note:

Singular Plural
X férias (vacation)
X óculos (glasses)
Singular Plural
pai (father) pais (fathers/parents)
filho (son) filhos (sons/children)